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《天文大师(第3期)-格林尼治摄影大奖得主-Martin Lewis》

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发表于 2018-12-12 21:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
ZWO小编 振旺光电ZWO 今天
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撰文编辑:ZWO小编  |  图片:Martin Lewis提供
如需转载,请后台联系授权
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Martin从小喜欢天文,有50年的天文观测经验,绝对是一位资深大佬。他最擅长的是行星摄影,尤其是拍摄金星,取得了无人能及的成就。今年的格林尼治天文摄影大赛,他的作品《优雅的金星》获得了太阳系组的冠军,并且他另外一张作品《太阳系全家福》也同时获奖。
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  从和Martin的交谈中我们发现,Martin不仅仅对行星摄影特别着迷,他还有许多其他天文领域的兴趣。比如,他喜欢拍摄国际空间站和人造卫星,还喜欢目视深空天体等等。
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  另外,Martin还是一位DIY大神。他的望远镜都是自己DIY的,包括现在服役的444mm口径牛反望远镜。自制一些天文常用附件,对他来说更是小菜一碟。正是使用这样的DIY天文设备,Martin向天爱们展示了他超凡的摄影技术。
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  让我们由衷地祝贺Martin获得了今年的格林尼治摄影大奖。借着这次机会,我们也对Martin做了一次专访,向他请教了许多大家都感兴趣的问题。让我们一起来看看吧!
Q1
Hi,Martin. Congratulations! Your work won the Greenwich astronomical photography competition. Could you introduce yourself for everyone?
嗨,Martin. 恭喜恭喜!你的作品在格林尼治摄影大赛获奖了。能给大家做个自我介绍吗?
Martin Lewis:
Hi,I'm Martin Lewis,a planetary imager living north of London in the UK. As well as planetary imaging I love building telescopes and other astronomical equipment. I also enjoy sketching and observing deep sky objects.
嗨,我叫Martin Lewis, 一位行星摄影爱好者,住在英国伦敦北部,我喜欢行星摄影,也喜欢建造望远镜和天文设备,还喜欢目视观测和手绘记录深空天体。
Q2
We are very curious that what is Greenwich astrophotography competition? And what will I get if win in the competition?
我们对格林尼治摄影大赛很感兴趣,想问一下如果赢了大赛会有啥奖励吗?
Martin Lewis:
The Insight Investment Astronomy Photographer of the Year is the largest astrophotography competition in the world with over 4000 entries this year from Europe, US, China and many other countries. The competition is judged by a panel of astronomy experts and artists and there are 10 categories ranging from Our Sun to People and Space. I was fortunate enough to win the first and second place in the Comets, Planets and Asteroids category. The overall winner gets £10,000!
《The Insight Investment Astronomy Photographer of the Year》是全球最盛大的天文摄影比赛,每年会有来自欧洲,美国,中国还有其他国家的共计超过4000多名摄影师参赛。比赛名次由天文专家和艺术家组成的评审团评出,共有10个类别,从”我们的太阳”到”人与太空”。 我很幸运,在彗星、行星和小行星类别中分别获得了第一和第二名。如果能获得大赛的总冠军,会有10000欧元的奖金!
Here are my winning entries, all images taken with ZWO cameras.
这是我的获奖作品,这两张照片都是用ZWO相机拍的:
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'Grace of Venus' 《优雅的金星》
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  'Parade of the Planets'《太阳系全家福》
Q3
When did you start like astronomy? And when did you have your first telescope? What’s the feeling in first observing?
您什么时候开始喜欢天文的?什么时候拥有了第一台望远镜?第一次观测是一种什么样的体验?
Martin Lewis:
I have been observing for nearly 50 years now. I got my first telescope when I was about 9 years old and I still have it. It was a small wobbly refractor with a very cheap 50mm lens but with that telescope I saw a tiny, and I thought perfect, Saturn, with the rings wide open. I was hooked on astronomy from that point onwards!
我已经有差不多50年的天文观测经历了。大概9岁的时候,我有了自己的第一台望远镜,而且我一直留着它。这是一个很小的折射望远镜,50mm口径,质量一般也很廉价,即便如此,我还是用它看到了小小的土星,还有光环围绕。从那时开始,我就深深的迷上了天文。
Q4
We know astrophotography need a lot of practice, it’s really hard to handle it, maybe need years to improve skills. When did you start to do astrophotography? And what equipments did you use?
我们知道天文摄影需要不断练习,非常难以掌握,甚至需要花很多年来提升拍摄技巧。您是什么时候开始天文摄影的,那时候用的是什么样的器材呢?
Martin Lewis:
I started planetary imaging in 2005 using my home-built 222mm Dobsonian reflector which at that time was unguided. I let Jupiter drift through the field and recorded several drift videos with a Philips Toucam webcam.
I then combined them in Registax to create this first image.
我从2005年开始行星摄影,那时候用的是我自制的222mm道布森牛反,那时候还没有跟踪装置。所以我拍摄的时候,把木星挪到视场中,让他随着地球自转在视野里漂移,用飞利浦的网络摄像头拍摄木星视频。然后把视频放到Registax软件里叠加合成了我的第一张行星作品:
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  Later that year I built an equatorial tracking platform to improve my imaging of Mars, which was at opposition in Winter 2005/2006. For many years I used my 222mm Dob. for planetary imaging- learning many techniques and improving my methods.
那年晚些时候,我制作了一个赤道式的跟踪装置来提升拍摄效果。那年冬天正好是火星冲日。之后,我用222mm道布森望远镜拍行星拍了很多年,提升自己的技巧和方法。
You can see the improvement I made over the years in the following two images taken with exactly the same telescope but 7 years apart.
你从下面这两张照片可以看到我这7年来的进步。
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  In 2013 I decided to try planetary imaging with my much larger home-built 444mm Dobsonian telescope which I named 'Fossil Light'. Up until then I had only used as this as visual instrument. I made an electric focuser for it and it worked out really well on the same equatorial platform that I originally built for the 222mm telescope. The extra aperture this bigger scope has given me has allowed me to push on even further with my planetary imaging as the image below shows from 2017.
2013年,我决定启用一台更大的444mm道布森望远镜来拍摄行星,我给这个望远镜起了个名字叫做:Fossil Light(小编不知如何翻译精准,欢迎文末留言)。在这之前,这台望远镜一直用于目视观测。为了拍摄方便,我还给这个望远镜做了一个电动调焦。然后把望远镜固定在之前做的那个赤道式跟踪平台上(就是之前给222mm望远镜用的那个跟踪平台)。这台口径更大的望远镜,让我的拍摄效果有了巨大的提升,下面是我在2017年拍摄的木星。
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  The bigger aperture has allowed me to try imaging the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune which are difficult in smaller telescopes because of their low surface brightness.
更大的口径让我能够更好的拍摄远日行星,尤其是天王星和海王星。这些行星在小口径望远镜下很难拍好,因为他们太暗了。
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  Q5
You are very familiar with Newtonian telescope, do you have any ideas about how to adjust optics axis and what kind of calibrator is necessary?
我们知道您对牛反望远镜了解甚多,请问有没有什么好的方法去校准牛反光轴?什么样的校准工具是必须的?
Martin Lewis:
I have aligned all my optics mechanically to be centralised as part of the design. I store my collapsed telescope in my garage then build it up every night which takes 15-20mins. Because of this the collimation changes each time by a small amount and so I collimate my Newtonian with a sighting tube and Cheshire eyepiece which takes no more than 2mins making slight adjustments to secondary then primary. I much prefer this method to laser collimators. SCTs are much harder to collimate and simple tools don't exist so with those designs you have to collimate on stars using the star test. The simplicity of collimating Newtonians is a significant advantage of this type of telescope.
我设计的时候,就把所有的光学和机械部件做了同心设计,我把这个大望远镜折叠起来放在我的车库里。每天晚上花大概15-20分钟来组装。我知道牛反的光轴会在每次组装完成后有些偏差,所以我用一个牛反校准目镜花不到2分钟的时间来调整主副镜。校准工具方面,我更推荐激光校准器。其实,施卡望远镜才是最难校准的,甚至没有一个可以用的简单工具,只能依靠实际星点测试来校准光轴。而牛反望远镜,校准最简单的方式就是用一个牛反校准目镜。
Q6
Dobson telescope has field rotation problem in shooting, so is that a big problem for planetary imaging?
道布森牛反拍摄时有场旋的问题,这会对行星拍摄有很大的影响吗?
Martin Lewis:
Autostakkert! does have a field rotation feature which might be useful for longer recordings but I've not used it. For me field rotation is not a problem as the equatorial platform eliminates the issue and keeps things simple.
Autostakkert软件有场旋修正的功能,但我没怎么用过。对于我来说,场旋不是问题,因为我给我的牛反做了一个赤道式平台,完美解决了这一类的问题,让拍摄变得更简单。
There are a few planetary imagers with big Dobsonian Newtonians on equatorial platforms such as the author of Autostakkert!, Emil Kraaikamp. I hope more people will try it as the method allows you to image with big apertures without spending a fortune. One key issue with this arrangment, however, is that the platform motor must be low vibration. I use a vinyl record turntable synchronous motor which is driven at 100VAC instead of 240VAC and this is mounted on a vibration absorbing plate.
为数不多的拍摄者给巨大的道布森牛反安装赤道式平台,比如Autostakkert软件的作者 Emil Kraaikamp。我希望更多的人能够尝试大口径道布森牛反和赤道式平台,因为这类望远镜相对便宜。有个关键问题,就是这种跟踪平台用的电机必须是震动非常小的。我使用的是唱片转盘的同步电机,它的工作电压是100V而不是240V,我把它安装在一个减震板上面。
Q7
What are the advantages of Newtonian in planetary imaging? A lot of people use a SCT.
用牛反拍摄行星的优势在哪?许多人似乎都在用施卡望远镜。
Martin Lewis:
I mentioned earlier about collimation but there are several other advantages with using a Newtonian for planetary imaging. A Newtonian generally has a smaller secondary size compared to an SCT helping improve image quality.
我前面提到了一点,就是牛反校准相对简单,当然还有一些其他的优点。比如,牛反的副镜要比施卡小得多,这对提升图像质量也有很大作用。
Newtonians are also completely colour corrected whereas SCTs often have spherical aberration issues in the blue- being generally only fully corrected in the red.
还有就是,牛反是完全没有色差的,而施卡会有一点蓝色的色差溢出。只有在红色波段施卡才是完全没有色差问题的。
I use them because they are low cost- especially if you make them yourself. Another advantage of a Newtonian over an SCT is that there are no UV absorbing AR coatings in the telescope which helps with Venus imaging in the UV.
我用牛反还有个原因就是成本低,尤其是自制,可以更便宜一些。牛反还有一个比施卡强的地方,就是施卡的改正镜会吸收紫外线波段,而牛反没有改正镜,所以更适合拍摄金星的紫外波段图像。Q8
When did you know about ZWO? And what’s the first ASI camera you have?
您是什么时候知道ZWO这家公司的,您第一台ASI相机是什么呢?
Martin Lewis:
The first ZWO camera I had was an ASI120MC which I bought shortly after it first came out. Since then I have also bought an ASI120MM-S, ASI224MC, ASI174MC, ASI174MM and most recently an ASI290MM.
我第一台ZWO相机是ASI120MC,在这款相机上市之初我就买了。从那之后,我还陆续入手了ASI120MM-S,ASI224MC,ASI174MC,ASI174MM还有最近才收入囊中的ASI290MM。
Q9
Which ASI camera is your favorite? And why are you choose it?
哪个相机是你最喜欢的?还有,为什么选择它?
Martin Lewis:
All my ZWO cameras are great but the one I have been using the most recently is the ASI290MM for IR imaging of Neptune, Mercury and Mars. I love the low read noise and fast speed. If you were to take all my cameras away except one I would keep the ASI224MC as it is so versatile, sensitive and low read noise. Also the ASI224MC is a colour camera and I love the ZWO colour cameras. I have been doing all my colour imaging for the last few years using colour cameras rather than from RGB mono imaging. I experimented many times in the past comparing one-shot colour to RGB mono imaging and I almost always got better results in real world situations with the colour camera.
我觉得我拥有的ZWO相机都很棒,我最近使用频率最高的是ASI290MM,用于拍摄海王星,水星和火星的红外图像。我最看重的地方是它超低的读出噪声和高帧率。
还有就是,如果说你要把我所有的相机都拿走,只让我留一个相机的话,我会留下ASI224MC。因为它的用途最广,非常全能,同样有很低的读噪和很高的灵敏度。
Q10
Is planetary imaging is your favorite? What setup do you use currently? Could share a picture of your setup?
行星摄影是你的最爱吗?现在用什么样的设备在拍摄?能发个设备照吗?
Martin Lewis:
Planetary imaging is definitely my favourite type of astro imaging. My current set up is my 444mm Dobsonian on my equatorial platform. I use a home-built combined ADC + filter block + APM barlow. The barlow can be 2.7x or 6.25x depending if I use one or two barlow elements and this gives f12 or f28 making it really flexible. I do IR or UV imaging with mono cameras but always use a colour camera for colour images rather than doing RGB imaging with a mono camera.
行星摄影的确是我最最喜欢的天文摄影领域。我现在用的设备就是444mm道布森望远镜加赤道式平台。我是用一个ADC和滤镜抽屉还有APM的巴罗。这个巴罗可以组合出2.7x或者6.25x两种倍率,最终合成出f12或者f28的焦比。我一般用IR或者UV滤镜配合黑白相机拍摄,如果要拍摄RGB彩色照片,我直接用彩色相机,不会用黑白相机+RGB滤镜去合成彩色。
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  444mm Dobsonian 'Fossil Light' on equatorial platform ready for darkness.
在赤道式平台上静待夜晚来临的444mm 道布森“Fossil Light”。
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  Optical imaging set-up; combined ADC, filter block and barlow.
终端光学部分:ADC,滤镜抽屉和巴罗。
Q11
What is the hardest part in planetary imaging? And how to get rid of it?
你觉得行星摄影最难的是什么?怎么去克服它?
Martin Lewis:
Wow that's a tough question! Success in planetary imaging is all about attention to detail at all the stages, start to end. If you have quality optics of a decent aperture that is correctly set up, collimated and cooled, combined with a good camera, then if you are lucky, and the seeing is good, you will get good data in you videos. Those videos then need to be correctly processed to maximise the potential of the data and there is a lot of experience in that. The process can fail at any of the links in the chain so it is important to see the imaging process as a whole and not neglect any one part of that chain.
这是个很难回答的问题,行星摄影的效果取决于从头到尾的每一个环节。如果你有一个口径合适的高质量光学望远镜,做好了光轴校准和热平衡,再加上一个好的相机,那么如果你运气好,而且视宁度也不错,你就能拍摄出高质量的视频数据。然后,还需要对后期处理有着丰富的实战经验,才能将图像的潜力充分的挖掘出来。这样看来,每一个环节都得重视,忽略任何一环都可能会以失败告终。
Q12
You are very good at Venus imaging, we know altitude of Venus is not high, and the cloud is can’t seen by eyes. How to get a sharp and detail image of Venus?
您非常擅长拍摄金星,我们都知道金星的地坪高度不高,而且肉眼无法看到它表面的云层细节。您是如何得到一幅细节丰富并且清晰锐利的金星照片的呢?
Martin Lewis:
To pull out detail in Venus images you need to image in ultraviolet light and I use a special Venus UV filter to achieve this. The best detail is visible when the air is very transparent but it also needs to be steady which is a rare combination unfortunately.
想要获取金星云层的细节,你需要拍摄紫外线波段。我用了一个特殊的紫外滤镜来做到这一点。另外,天气通透并且视宁度好也是非常重要的,可惜这样的天气很少。
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Venus in UV showing cloud details
紫外波段的金星云层细节
During the last year I been experimenting with imaging Venus and particularly Mercury when the sun is full in the sky as the two planets are much higher altitude then.
从去年开始,我开始尝试在白天拍摄金星和水星,也就是在太阳底下去拍摄,这样金星和水星的高度会很高。
Here is a Mercury image taken this year with my ASI290MM and a 642nm filter compared to a simulation based on Messenger probe data. There is a good match for many of the surface features.
下面就是今年我拍摄的水星照片,用了ASI290MM相机和一块IR642nm红外滤镜。图片上,和winjupos软件模拟效果做了一个比较。看起来,细节都能够对的上。
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  Here is Venus recently at nearly midday with a 1.7% crescent and only 12° from the Sun.
这是我最近在白天中午的时候拍摄的金星,被照亮的部分只有1.7%,离太阳只有12度。
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Q13
ADC is a very good accessory for planetary imaging. But it’s hard to calibrate it. Could you share us some skills of using ADC?
ADC是行星摄影时特别好用的一个配件,但它很难校准,请问你能和我们分享下是如何很好的校准ADC的吗?
Martin Lewis:
ADCs are wonderful devices to help with planetary imaging especially for Northern Hemisphere imagers who have to suffer with low altitude planets for the next few years. They are particularly important to get the best out of colour cameras which have wider bandwidth in the individual R, G and B colours than mono cameras used with dedicated colour filters.
ADC的确是一个超级棒的行星摄影配件,尤其是在北半球,近几年,行星地坪高度都非常低,大家都被折磨的很惨。ADC对于彩色相机修正效果尤为明显,因为彩色相机的拍摄带宽要远高于黑白相机加RGB滤镜拍摄时的某一个色彩通道的带宽。
There is limited space to discuss the set up of ADCs but I have put together a very comprehensive webpage about ADCs,how they work and how to use them which you are welcome to see at:
http://www.skyinspector.co.uk/atm-dispersion-corrector--adc
在这里,由于篇幅有限,没办法详细套理论ADC的设置,不过我已经把详细的方法总结到了一篇文章里,包括ADC的原理以及怎么去使用它。欢迎大家浏览链接了解详情。
Q14
What other objects do you image apart from planets?
除了行星,您还喜欢拍摄哪些目标呢?
Martin Lewis:
I love photographing the ISS using my hand guided 222mm scope and the large chip and fast speed of the ASI174MM is great for this.
我还很喜欢手动控制222mm望远镜跟踪拍摄国际空间站(ISS)。这时候大靶面高帧率的ASI174MM相机就非常适合。
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  ISS 28th March 2018
2018年3月28日拍摄的国际空间站(ISS)
I also use my ASI cameras at the heart of an AllSky camera I built. This gives great time-lapse videos of the slow turning night sky. Again the big chipped ASI174s work well here. You can see my time lapse videos here.
我还用ASI相机作为全天相机的核心部件,我的全天相机用来拍摄夜晚的延时视频。大靶面的ASI174用来拍延时效果非常好。
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  Frame from time-lapse video with ASI174MM camera
ASI174MM延时视频中的一帧
Q15
What’s your impression of ZWO?
你对ZWO的印象如何?
Martin Lewis:
I love the tremendous range of great value cameras that ZWO sell and they have done really well in quickly bringing the latest chips to the market for astro imagers. They understand what imagers need with cameras and what aspects are important. For planetary imagers those important characteristics are sensitivity, speed and read noise.
ZWO相机的性价比很高,这是我喜欢他们的一个原因。而且,他们一直以最快的速度将采用新传感器的新相机不断推向市场,这一点做的非常好。他们深知爱好者需要什么样的相机,也知道相机哪些方面是最重要的。众所周知,行星相机需要考虑的就是灵敏度、速度和读出噪声。
Q16
Last question, will you join the Greenwich competition next year? Do you have confidence to win?
最后一个问题,您会参加明年的格林尼治摄影大赛吗?有没有信心赢?
Martin Lewis:
I will enter again but I think I spent my luck this year!
我会去的,不过我感觉我今年把运气都用完了
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发表于 2018-12-13 05:37 | 显示全部楼层
Fossil Light=化石之光

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棒  详情 回复 发表于 2018-12-14 14:31
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 楼主| 发表于 2018-12-14 14:31 | 显示全部楼层


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发表于 2018-12-16 19:11 | 显示全部楼层
在他个人网站上看到了介绍,
Fossil Light is named in recognition the light from distant galaxies which started out on its journey to us many millions of years ago and which in essence is the fossil record of something that existed millions of years ago. The name was taken from one of the beguiling Cosmic Gnomes on the Tower of the Ecliptic (Marina Towers) on the waterfront at Swansea, which was used as an observatory until 2010 by the Swansea Astronomical Society;
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